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Rabu, Januari 14, 2009

genre (jenis-jenis teks)

Genre Text (Jenis teks) level SMP
By colorofme
TEKS DESCRIPTIVE
teks yang isinya mendiskripsikan sesuatu/ seseorang secara spesifik.
Generic Structure : Identification - Description
Identification          :   berisi identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan
Description             :   berisi deskripsi rinci tentang bagian-bagiannya, misalnya tentang physical appearance (ciri-ciri fisik), sifat-sifatnya (characteristics) dll.
Tenses yang digunakan adalah Present tense.
Example: My House, My Favorite Teacher
 
 
Contoh teks descriptive:
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The Ambarawa Train Museum houses 21 antique locomotives plus two more, which are stored in the depot. These locomotives are no longer produced; even the factories that made them no longer exist. The main building of this museum is the defunct Ambarawa railway station which was built in 1873. the station covers 127,500 m2.
The oldest in this museum is a locomotive made by Hartman Chemnitz. This locomotive, with a length of 8.58 m and a width of 2.45 m, began its operation in 1891. Using wood as fuel, the steam locomotive could run 50 km/h – its maximum speed.
A special part of a visit to this museum is a trip by train from the Ambarawa Train Museum to the defunct Bedono train station. This package tour is called Railway Mountain Tour. Why is the trip so special? Because the participants will board an antique train and the train will travel on a 4.9 kilometer-cog railway, which is the only one in the world.
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Museum Sejarah Jakarta
Also known as Museum Fatahilah, this museum was named after the sultan who defeated the portuguese in 1527. the Museum, located in Taman Fatahilah, used to be the heart of Dutch colonial administration. Formerly it was the Stadhuis or the Town Hall of Batavia, bult in 1627 and then renovated in 1705 – 1715.
The Museum has a collection of 18 th century furnishing, chinaware, ancient map of Jakarta, and potraits of former colonial governos. In the back of museum, there is a big old Portuguese cannon called is Jagur, with writing in Latin: Ex Me Ipsa Renata Sum (I am Reborn From Myself). It is said so to show that the cannon was remolded from several smaller cannons. It is believed that  Jagur possesses certain mystical powers. Many women who aren’t able to bear children visit it shopping to be blessed with children. 
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‘ISSIS’ Cafe
‘ISSIS’ is Javanese word meaning ‘cool’. So, besides the food, ISSIS Café offers a spacious, fully air-conditioned, cozy place.
Located at Jl. Cilacap No. 8, Jakarta Pusat, ISSIS Café is famous for its European food, especially steak, barbecue ribs, salad, and soup. You might find this kind of food anywhere else, but there is no other place that offers great meals at better prices than ISSIS Café.
You can enjoy a delicious imported sirloin steak for only Rp. 25,000 and ice cappuccino for only Rp. 5,500. There is also a salad bar with eight different vegetables. You can make your own salad which you can eat as much as you like, for only Rp. 12,000. The customers are mostly college students, office workers, and families.
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My friend, Miranda.
Hi friends! This is my friend Miranda. She comes from Sulawesi. She was born in Makasar on June 12, 1980. her hobbies are singing and swimming. She also likes planting flowers very much. She lives at 12 Jalan Jaya. She lives together with her parents and two sisters. They are Mr. and Mrs Yudhatama, Sherina and Tiara. Miranda studies at SMP 7. Her older sister is in the first year of SMA, and  Tiara is still in SD. They all love one another
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TEKS PROCEDURE
Tujuan komunikatif nya: memberi petunjuk cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.The function of the text is to describe how somethings are accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.
 
Struktur Teks (Generic Structure): Goal/Aim – Materials/Tools – Steps/Methods
 
Aim/Goal,                            :   misalnya: How to make Brownies Cake.
Materials berisi                  :   bahan-bahan dan atau alat-alat untuk membuat Brownies tersebut.
Note:
Materials are not required for all Procedure text
 
Ciri Kebahasaan teks Procedure:
-       pola kalimat present tense dalam bentuk imperative: misalnya, cut, pour, don’t mix, dsb.
-       action verbs: misalnya turn, put, don’t, mix, dsb.
-       connectives untuk mengurutkan kegiatan, misalnya then, while, dsb.
-       adverbials untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat, misalnya for five minutes, two centimetres from the top, dsb.
 
Example:
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Sesame Drop Biscuits
Materials:
a.     2 cups flour
b.     1 ½ teaspoons baking powder
c.     ½ reaspoon each baking soda and salt
d.     Butter  or margarine
e.     2 tablespoons sesame seed
f.      1 cup buttermilk
 
Night Before:
g.     In a large bowl stir together flour, baking powder, soda and salt.
h.     With 2 knives or pastry blender cut in ½ cup butter until particles are fine .
i.      Stir in sesame seed.
 
Next Morning:
j.      Add buttermilk to flour mixture and stir with a fork just until mixed.
k.     Drop by tablespoons on greased cookies sheet.
l.      Bake in preheated 450 degrees oven until light brown. 12 to 14 minutes.
m.    Serve at once with butter.
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How to make Lemonade
Ingredients:
For each glass use:
- 2 tablespoons of lemon juice.
 
- 2 tablespoons of sugar.
- 1 glass of water.
 
Methods:
1.     Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup.
2.     Take out the seeds.
3.     Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass.
4.     Add sugar.
5.     Add water and stir well.
6.     Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it  taste just right.
7.     Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade.
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TEKS NARRATIVE
Teks yang berisi tentang sebuah cerita atau dongeng dan di dalamnya terdapat konflik/puncak masalah yang diikuti dengan penyelesaian.
 
The function of the text is to amuse, entertain, and to deal with actual or various experience in different ways
 
Generic Structure              :   Orientation - Complication - Evaluation (optional) – Resolution
Orientation                 :       berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (it is about WHO, WHEN, and WHERE the story happened)
Complication             :       berisi puncak masalah/konflik dalam cerita. Sebuah cerita boleh memiliki complication lebih dari satu
Evaluation                  :       ini merupakan optional (boleh ada boleh tidak), biasanya dipakai untuk membuat jalan cerita lebih menarik.
Resolution                  :       Pemecahan masalah (it is the solution of the problem. It can be a happy or sad ending)
 
Contoh teks Narrative:
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The Boy who cried “Wolf”
There was once a shepherd-boy who kept his flock at a little distance from the village. Once he thought he would play a trick on the villagers and have some fun at their expense. So he ran toward the village crying out, with all his might,
“Wolf! Wolf! Come and help! The wolves are at my lambs!”
The kind villagers left their work and ran to the field to help him. But when they got there the boy laughed at them for their pains; there was no wolf there.
Still another day the boy tried the same trick, and the villagers came running to help and got laughed at again. Then one day a wolf did break into the fold and began killing the lambs. In great fright, the boy ran for help. “Wolf! Wolf!” he screamed. “There is a wolf in the flock! Help!”
The villagers heard him, but they thought it was another mean trick; no one paid the least attention, or went near him. And the shepherd-boy lost all his sheep.
 
Moral value:
That is the kind of thing that happens to people who lie: even when they tell the truth no one believes them.
 
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Snow Maiden
Once upon a time there lived a couple in a village. They had got married for a long time, but so far they did not have a baby yet. Every single minute they prayed to God, begged for a baby, but it never came true.
One day, they went to Snow Mountain. They made a girl from snow and they dressed her beautifully. When it got dark, they decided to go home and left the snow girl alone. The following morning, someone knocked the door. “Any body home?” she said. The old woman inside opened the door and asked, “Who are you?” The girl said “I’m Snow Maiden, your daughter”. The old woman was surprised and happy. “Oh really? Thanks God! Come in, please!” Since that meeting, they lived happily. Snow Maiden was beautiful, kind, diligent and helpful. Her parents and all of her friends loved her very much. One day, Snow Maiden played with her friends. They played fire. At first, Snow Maiden just looked at their play. Suddenly, her friends asked her to jump on the fire. Of course she refused it because one thing that made her afraid was the fire. It’s because Snow Maiden was made of snow, so she should avoid the fire. But her friends kept on forcing her to jump on. Finally, she could not do anything then she did it. She jumped on the fire and she melted. Her friends were so sorry about this, they cried and cried hoping Snow Maiden could live again, but it was useless. Snow Maiden would not be back anymore her mother tried to entertain Snow Maiden’s friends and asked them to make a new Snow Maiden. They went to a snow mountain and started making it. They expected to have the new Snow Maiden. Days passed but their dreams never came true.
Poor them!
 
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Once there were two him thin  goats. Both of them were hungry. They were tied together with a brown rope. They wanted to eat the green leaves from two separated bushes. One bush was on the left. The other bush was on the right.
The goats thought they could do everything on their own. The first goat wanted to go to the bush on the left, but the second goat wanted to go to the bush on the right. However, the rope was short. They tried but they could not reach they bushes. They were sad.
Then, the goats decided to work together. First, they are the leaves of the bush on the right. Then, ate the leaves on the left. The leaves were delicious. They were happy.
 
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It was a warm day in March. I was very excited. The day had finally come. I was in the rowing team for the Olympics. I got up very early and exercised as always. Then after breakfast I drove to Drummoyne. My team arrived and at last it was time to start.
Ready, set and the starting gun went off. We began in the third position and were slowly moving closer. There they were. We could see the second boat and then we did it.
We moved past. My arms were aching. My whole body was sore but we all rowed harder.
The first boat was just in front  I saw a dark shadow near the boat. I looked again. What was it? I was sure  it was the shape of a cigar. ‘Oh my  God’,  I thought, ‘I must be seeing things. A shark in Parramata River? Impossible!’
Just then I pulled my oar out of the water. ‘Oh no, why only half?’ I thought. Then I knew. I shouted to my team, ‘Shark! Shark!’ and suddenly we forgot the race. We rowed faster than ever back to shore. We made it. Phew, we were safe!
 
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Long ago on the top of Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, there lived a dragon. He owned a large and beautiful pearl. People believed that he controlled the weather with it.
The emperor of China heard this and wanted the pearl. He sent his two sons, Wee Ping and Wee San to Borneo to steal it. The princes, together with one hundred soldiers, set sail for Borneo in twelve sailing junks.
When they arrived in Borneo, The set out immediately to find the famous mountain. Their journey up the rugged slopes of Mount Kinabalu proved very difficult. The dragon guarded his cave very fiercely and killed many of their soldiers.
Then Wee San had a clever idea. He climbed a tall tree, so he could see the dragon’s cave. He noted what time the dragon left his cave to hunt for food and what time he returned  to it.
Next he ordered his men to make a fake pearl and a large kite. He waited until the dragon left his cave. Then he placed the fake pearl in a bag, slung it across his shoulder and flew up to the mountain-top on the kite. He exchanged the real pearl for the fake one and then his brother pulled his kite back to the ground.
The brothers quickly returned to their ships and set sail for China. They sailed safely home. The emperor was thrilled with the pearl and gave a big party to celebrate his sons’ return.
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Cara menentukan bagian - bagian teks Narrative.
Sebelumnya perlu kita ketahui dulu pengertian teks Narrative, yaitu teks yang berisi tentang sebuah cerita atau dongeng dan di dalamnya terdapat konflik/puncak masalah yang diikuti dengan penyelesaian.
Generic Structure                  :   Orientation - Complication - Resolution
- Orientation berisi                :   Pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita
- Complication berisi             :   Puncak masalah/konflik dalam cerita
- Resolution                            :   Pemecahan masalah
 
Contoh teks Narrative:
(Ini merupakan Orientation)
It was a warm day in March. I was very excited. The day had finally come. I was in the rowing team for the Olympics. I got up very early and exercised as always. Then after breakfast I drove to Drummoyne. My team arrived and at last it was time to start.
Ready, set and the starting gun went off. We began in the third position and were slowly moving closer. There they were. We could see the second boat and then we did it.
We moved past. My arms were aching. My whole body was sore but we all rowed harder.
(Ini merupakan Complication)
The first boat was just in front  I saw a dark shadow near the boat. I looked again. What was it? I was sure  it was the shape of a cigar. ‘Oh my  God’,  I thought, ‘I must be seeing things. A shark in Parramata River? Impossible!’
Just then I pulled my oar out of the water. ‘Oh no, why only half?’ I thought. Then I knew. I shouted to my team, ‘Shark! Shark!’ and suddenly we forgot the race.
(Ini merupakan Resolution)
We rowed faster than ever back to shore. We made it. Phew, we were safe!
 
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Contoh teks narrative
The Boy who cried “Wolf”
There was once a shepherd-boy who kept his flock at a little distance from the village. Once he thought he would play a trick on the villagers and have some fun at their expense. So he ran toward the village crying out, with all his might,–
“Wolf! Wolf! Come and help! The wolves are at my lambs!”
The kind villagers left their work and ran to the field to help him. But when they got there the boy laughed at them for their pains; there was no wolf there.
Still another day the boy tried the same trick, and the villagers came running to help and got laughed at again. Then one day a wolf did break into the fold and began killing the lambs. In great fright, the boy ran for help. “Wolf! Wolf!” he screamed. “There is a wolf in the flock! Help!”
The villagers heard him, but they thought it was another mean trick; no one paid the least attention, or went near him. And the shepherd-boy lost all his sheep.
Moral value:
That is the kind of thing that happens to people who lie: even when they tell the truth no one believes them.
Keterangan;
-       Kalimat yang dicetak tebal adalah kalimat yang memakai ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
-       Kalimat yang dicetak MIRING adalah kalimat yang memakai KALIMAT TIDAK LANGSUNG (Indirrect speech)
 
TEKS RECOUNT
Tujuan Komunikatif: Untuk menyampaikan serentetan peristiwa/ kejadian /pengalaman yang terjadi pada waktu lampau.
The function of the text is to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.
Generic structure : orientation, event (s), reorientation.
This text has language features such as: focus on individual participants, use of past tense, focus on a temporal sequence of events, etc.
catatan:
Event dalam teks Recount boleh satu atau lebih. Sedangkan Reorientation adalah optional (boleh ada boleh tidak).
 
Tenses yang digunakan selalu Past Tense.
 
Example :
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CLASS PICNIC
Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic.
First our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and had our picnic. Finally, at two o’clock we left for school.
We had a great day.
 
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I am used to travelling by air and only on one occasion I have ever felt frightened. After taking off, we flew low over the city. It slowly went high to the sky. But suddenly it turned round and flew back to the airport.(Ini adalah Orientation)
An airhostess told us to keep calm and to get off the plane quietly as soon as it touched down. Everybody on board was worried and we were curious to find out what happened. Later we learnt that there was a very important person on board. Earlier somebody told the police that there was a bomb on the plane. After we landed, the police searched the plane carefully. Fortunately, they did not find a bomb and five hours later we were able to take off again.(Ini adalah Event).
 
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I was driving along the coast road when the car suddenly lurched to one side. At first I thought a type had gone but that then I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks. The rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car. There was an earthquake. When I got back to town, there wasn’t much left.
 
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TEKS REPORT
teks yang isinya menggambarkan sesuatu secara apa adanya sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Oleh karena itu sebelum Anda menulis teks Report, Anda harus melakukan pengamatan sistematis. Yang Anda deskripsikan bisa meliputi gejala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala- gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum misalnya tentang rumah sederhana dengan mendekripsikan ciri-ciri subyek tersebut sehingga layak dikategorikan rumah sederhana, dsb.
Tujuan Komunikatif Report: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala- gejala sosial.
 
Generic Structure: General Classification – Description
Tenses yang digunakan adalah Present Tense.
Ciri Kebahasaan: general nouns, seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku, misalnya lizards cannot fly. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum, misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. istilah teknis, misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi.
 
Example of Report: “Plants”, “Hospitals”, “Whales”, dll
Contoh Teks Report:
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PENGUINS
Penguins are birds that cannot fly. There are eighteen different species. They are all splendid swimmers and can propel themselves through the water at rate of 30 kilometers per hour. They live only in the southern seas of the world, on the island of Australia, in New Zealand, South Africa and southern South America. Those that live in the snow and ice cannot build nests.
The biggest are the Emperor penguins which stand about 1.2 meters and weigh about 75 kilograms. When a female lays an egg, it is the male that keeps it off the ice by resting it on top of his feet. When the chick hatches, the male, which will not have eaten for two months, then goes off to feed while the female stays with the chick to-feed and protect it.
Adelle penguins gather in huge colonies, sometimes as many as half a million in one group.
Rock hopper penguins are so called because of the way they hop from rock to rock. They have long crests on their heads. Their chicks are covered with soft down when hathced. They are helpless at first and needed to be looked for several weeks.
As far back as 1499 it was noted that the jackass penguin brayed like an ass. It is also known as the black-footed penguin. Gentoo penguins live on many of the Antartic islands. They are very friendly and do not fear man. King penguins also live in the Antartic. They toboggan on their stomachs at the great speed on the ice to escape their enemies.
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Plants
Plants are living beings. They need food, water and air for survival.
Plants derive their food from the earth and the air. If you look at their roots, you will find that ends of these roots are like fine fibers. We call them root-hairs. They absorb water and minerals, then transport them upwards to the leaves through the trunk and the branches. It is the leaves which prepare the food.
The green material, chlorophyll, prepares the food like a machine. It converts the carbon dioxide taken from the air and water from the ground into sugar with the help of sunlight. This chemical reaction is called photosynthes. In fact, the chlorophyll takes energy from the sunlight and uses it to synthesize the hydrogen from water and carbon from carbon dioxide for making sugar. This reaction also gives out oxygen and water which are excreted by the leaves.
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RADIO
The radio is one of the most popular mass media in the world. Almost all people are familiar with it and most of them own one.
The radio is effective for distance communication. People get information about the world as soon as possible just by listening to the radio at home. They also find entertainment like drama, music, etc. on the radio. They can also use radio to send their family messages. Radio is also good for saying hello to a friend orn sends other kinds of messages just as a social interaction. The radio is very important to the police, too. During emergencies where telephones do not work and transportation is impossible, using radio will be very useful.
The history of the radio begins with Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian expert at telegraph. In 1901 he succeeded in transmitting the Morse code signal for the letter S from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland across the Atlantic.
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Contoh Report tentang hewan
GOANNAS
Goannas are large Australian lizards which belong to the reptile family.Goannas are yellowish-brown in colour and grow to about a metre in length.They live in burrows and eat insects, lizards, mice, eggs, and flesh of dead animals. To breed, the female goanna lays about six eggs in a termite mound.
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Contoh Report tentang tekhnologi
Fax Machine
Fax, the short term for facsimile is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. The word telefax, short for telefacsimile, for “make a copy at a distance”, is also used as a synonym. The device is also known as a telecopier in certain industries. When sending documents to people at large distances, faxes have a distinct advantage over postal mail in that the delivery is nearly instantenous, yet its disadvantages in quality and its proprietary format have relegated it to a position beneath email as the prevailing form of electronic document tranferral.
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Whales are sea-living mammals. They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and blue whale, which can exceed 30 cm in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lays a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids.

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